HADEJIA A YAU!
Travel and discovery in North and central Africa. By Henry Barth..........
March 18.] BENZARI— BUKHARI OF HADEJA. 323
Any protection in the neighbourhood of some villages. After we had passed the empty market-place of the little walled town Kabbori, the surface of the ground had a very peculiar look, being covered entirely with colocynths, which were just in maturity. About a mile and a half further on we took up our quarters in Benzari, a town belonging to the province of Mashena, or Maseena, and were well received and hospitably treated by the Ghaladima. The town is separated into two parts by a spacious opening, wherein is the principal well which supplies almost the whole population, but its depth is considerable, being more than twenty fathoms. Here we filled our water-skin the next morning before we set out.
Tuesday ', March 18. — Scarcely had we left Benzari behind us when my ears were struck by the distant sound of drums and singing, and I learnt on inquiry that it was Bukhari, or, as the Bornu people call him, Buwari, the deposed governor of Hadeja and the brother of Ahmedu, the present ruler of that town. Bokhari's name was then new, not only to me, but even to the natives of the neighbouring provinces. He had been governor of Hadeja, but being a clever and restless man he, or rather his jealous brother, excited the suspicion of his liege lord 'Aliyu, the ruler of Sokoto, who had deposed him and given the govern-ment to his brother Ahmedu,where upon Bokhari had nothing else to do but to throw himself upon the hospitality and protection of the Bornu people, who received him with open arms, the governor of Mashena, with the sanction of his liege lord the sheikh of Bornu, assigning to him a neighbouring place, Yerimari, for his residence.
This is an incident of very frequent occurrence in these loosely connected empires; but it is particularly so with the Fulbe, among whom one brother often cherishes the most inveterate hatred against another. Exactly the same thing we have seen already in Katsena. Bokhari having remained some time quietly in this place, strengthening his party and assisted underhand with arms and men by the vizier of Bornu, had just now set out to try his fortune against his brother, and was beating the drums in order to collect as many people as possible. Predatory incursions are nothing new in these quarters, where several provinces and entirely distinct empires have a common frontier; but this, as the event proved, was rather a memorable campaign fortfie whole of this part of Negroland, and was to become "the beginning of sorrows" for all the country around. For Bokhari having taken the strongtrong town of Hadeja, and killed his brother, was not only able to defend himself in his new position, vanquishing all the armies sent against him, and amongst them the whole military force of the empire of Sokoto, which was led on by the vizier in person, 'Abdu the son of Gedado, Clapperton's old friend, but spread terror and devastation to thevery gates of Kano. Indeed, on my second journey through these regions, I shall have the sad duty of describing the state of misery into which districts, which on my former visit I had found flourishing and populous, had been reduced by this warlike chieftain, who instead of founding a strong kingdom and showing himself a great prince, chose rather, like most of his countrymen, to his power on the destruction. eir 'of
324. TRAVELS OF AFRICA. 
and devastation of the country around him, and to make himsetf a slave- dealer on a grand scale. Tens of thousands of unfortunate people, pagans as well as Mohammedans, unprotected in their wellbeing by their lazy and effeminate rulers, have from the hands of Bokhari passed into those of the slave-dealer, and have been carried away from their native home into distant regions. Kept in alarm by the drumming, and making some not very tranquilling reflections on the weakness of our little band, which consisted three men and a boy, in the turbulent state of the country through which we were passing, we continued silently on, while the character of the landscape had nothing peculiarly adapted to cheer the mind.
Cultivation beginning to cease, nothing was to be seen but an immense level tract of country covered with the monotonous Asclepias gigantea with only a single poor Balanites now and then. But the scene became more animated as we approached Chifowa, (Shafowa) a considerable town sur-rounded by a low earthen wall, which I was greatly astonished to hear belonged still to the territory of Gummel, and was also assigned to Bokhari during his exile. The boundary between the provinces must run here in a very waving line.
All that I observed here testified that the Hausa population still greatly predominated; and as we had to turn close round the place on the north side, where the ground rose, we had a fine view over the whole interior of the town. It presented a very animated spectacle; and a large number of horsemen were assembled here, evidently in connection with the enterprise of Bokhari, while men and women were busy carrying water into the town from a considerable distance. Of cultivation, however, very few traces appeared ; but a good many cattle and sheep, and even some camels, were seen grazing about. In Kase-Itiwa also, the next town, we were complimented with the usual Hausa salute. Having then passed through a monotonous tract of country covered with tall reed-grass and with the Asclepias, we reached the town of Yelkazl at half-past nine o'clock in the morning. Here the governor of the province of Mashena, who generally has his residence in the town of the same name, was staying at present, apparently on account of the expedition of Bokhari, which he was assisting under-hand ; and I accordingly had to pay him my compliments, as my horseman, who was a servant of Dan-Tanoma, could not well conduct me any further. We therefore entered the town by the north gate, and found people very busy repairing the fortification, consisting of two walls and three ditches of considerable depth, two of which ran outside round the outer wall, while the third was enclosed between the two walls.
Having presented ourselves at the residence of the governor, which was situated in the middle of the town, and consisted altogether of reed-work, we obtained good quarters, with a spacious and cool shed, which was the only thing we wanted ; for being anxious not to lose any more time, I had resolved to start again in the afternoon. In order, therefore, to obtain a guide as soon as possible, I went to pay my compliments to the governor, whose name was Mohammed. After a little delay.
March 1 8.] THE GOVERNOR OF MASHENA.—TAGANAMA. 32